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Permaculture

See Permaculture terms.

Permaculture is a scientific and ethical system of sustainable agriculture based on traditional principles of agriculture used successfully and commonly around the world before the advent of modern industrial “factory farm” methods of farming such as chemical fertilizers, genetically modified organism seeds from Monsanto designed to resist massive amounts of toxic insecticides-pesticides-herbicides.

Introduction to the term "Permaculture"

The word “Permaculture”, its theories, philosophies, ethics, patterns, and main ideas of permaculture were synthesized-developed by Bill Mollison in Australia during the 1970s and disseminated by his student Geoff Lawton.

The word permaculture is a portmanteau that was originally created from the words “permanent agriculture”. It has now been expanded to include the more broad words of “permanent” and “culture”.

Permaculture is a series of frameworks, techniques and tools to analyze, design, and create systems of all types, yet it is most commonly applied to agricultural food production systems, although many types of system can be established using the permaculture framework.

Permaculture's Common Practices and Concepts

Permaculturists employ techniques from a broad range of disciplines, but these tools are selected and applied according to how well they allow permaculture's principles to be applied, not because a particular method is “how we do it in permaculture.”

While there are numerous practices and concepts, these are some of the main ones:

Appeal to Homesteaders, Preppers and Survivalists

Permaculture has been adopted by many in the conservative-libertarian Homesteader, Survivalist-Preparedness movements according to James Wesley Rawles, Paul Wheaton, Jack Spirko, and Backwoods Home Magazine. Permaculture results in long term productive ecosystems that require minimal maintenance and little to no inputs once well established. Permaculture also can help create an abundance of food on arid, infertile, rocky or marginal land often considered not viable for agricultural use. (See the YouTube video “Greening of the Desert”<ref>Greening the Desert by Geoff Lawton: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=reCemnJmkzI found on https://www.youtube.com/user/Permasolutions/videos Accessed December 5, 2014. Also see https://duckduckgo.com/?q=Greening+of+the+Desert+youtube, http://www.permies.com/t/1784/desert/Greening-Desert)</ref>)

Permaculture includes everything from water catchment, alternative energy systems, alternative building, livestock management to food forestry and much more. Unlike the entitlement mentality of Liberal values-Public school values-Teacup Generation, permaculture is a system that results in a highly self sufficient Small town values lifestyle in all times not just during a crisis. Hence it has gained broad acceptance by conservative-thinking homesteaders, survivalists, and preppers.

Permaculture Tenets similar to Survialism Tenets

As show below, permaculture shares some important major tenets with those of “modern survivalism”. While most “permaculurists” subscribe to Libertarian values, not all permaculturists practice the Conservative values, Traditional values, American values, Small town values and Family values that are accepted by the vast majority of survivalists according to well-known prepper authors-bloggers-podcaster-“authorities” such as Jack Spirko and New York Times best-selling author James Wesley Rawles of the American Redoubt vote with your feet conservative political migration movement, the “grand-daddy of the survivalist movement” Mel Tappan, and also many others including Ragnar Benson, Boston T. Party (Kenneth Royce of Free State Wyoming), Chuck Baldwin, Joel Skousen, Cleon Skousen, Alex Jones, Dave Duffy of Backwoods Home Magazine, M.D. Creekmore, et al.

Growing your own food

Growing your own food is for everyone not just people that want “organicfruit and vegetables. To produce your own food, even as little as 10% of what you use reduces your dependence on “the system”. If nothing else gardening is good for your emotional and physical health and increases the value of any property. See Permaculture for more specific articles.

Food and water storage

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Renewable energy

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Owning land is true wealth

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  • Permaculture implies some land-soil to grow food and medicines (herbs), thus owning land is true wealth. Individuals should strive to own land in the rural country where taxes are low and big government restrictions are limited. Even if you live in the city finding, buying and improving land within 3-5 hours of your primary residence makes a lot of sense. If you can use it to get out of the city at some point so much the better.

Financial security

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  • In addition to food, water and other common preparedness stores (“preps”) use common sense methods of hedging against “disaster” due to drought, weather events, crop failure, famine, etc. The types of protection offered by Permaculture techniques can make your life a lot less miserable when something goes wrong. Permaculturists make this part of their planning and permaculture design.

Quotes about Permaculture Topics

  • “All the world's problems can be solved in a garden.” - Geoff Lawton, Permaculturist, and one of the primary proponents of permaculture science

See Also

Bibliography

  • Fucuoka, Masanobu. The One Straw Revolution. Rodale Books (US). Holistic Agriculture Library
  • Hart, Robert. Forest Gardening. Green Books (UK) ISBN 1-900322-02-1.
  • Hemenway, Toby. Gaia's Garden. Chelsea Green Books (US) (2001). ISBN 1-890132-52-7.
  • Jacke, Dave with Eric Toensmeier. Edible Forest Gardens. Volume I: Ecological Vision and Theory for Temperate-Climate Permaculture, Volume II: Ecological Design and Practice for Temperate-Climate Permaculture. Edible Forest Gardens (US) 2005
  • Law, Ben. The Woodland House. [Permanent Publications] (UK) (2005), ISBN 1-85623-031-7.
  • Law, Ben. The Woodland Way. [Permanent Publications] (UK), ISBN 1-85623-009-0.
  • Mollison, Bill & David Holmgren Permaculture One. Transworld Publishers (Australia) (1978), ISBN 0-552-98060-9.
  • Mollison, Bill. Permaculture: A Designer's Manual. Tagari Press (Australia).
  • Mollison, Bill Permaculture Two. Tagari Press (Australia) (1979), ISBN 0-908228-00-7.

References

Permaculture topics Permaculture Gardening Botany Agriculture Sustainable Agriculture Hobbies Plants Survivalism Sustainable Agriculture Ethics Philosophy Libertarianism


“All the world's problems can be solved in a garden.” - Geoff Lawton, Permaculturist

Permaculture is an ethics based design system. The word, theories, philosophies, ethics, patterns, and main ideas of permaculture were developed by Bill Mollison in Australia during the 1970s.

The word permaculture is a portmanteau that was originally created from the words “permanent agriculture”. It has now been expanded to include the more broad words of “permanent” and “culture”.

Permaculture is a series of frameworks and tools to analyze, design, and create systems of all types. It is most widely applied to agricultural systems, although any type of system can be established using the permaculture framework.

Ethics

[[Care for the earth]]

:Provision for all life systems to continue and multiply. This is the first principle, because without a healthy earth, humans cannot flourish.

[[Care for the people]]

:Provision for people to access those resources necessary for their existence.

[[Return of surplus]]

:Reinvesting surpluses back into the system to provide for the first two ethics. This includes returning waste back into the system to recycle into usefulness. According to Jack Spirko on his The Survival Podcast, some liberals and hippie types who work with permaculture have a complete misunderstanding of return of surplus as income redistribution.

Common Practices and Concepts

Permaculture is not a discipline in itself but rather a design approach based on connecting different disciplines, strategies, and techniques. It, like nature, uses and melds the best features of whatever is available to it. Some people new to this approach think of permaculture as a set of techniques. There are certain methods that are used often because they illustrate permaculture principles beautifully, such as herb spirals and keyhole beds; there are few, if any, techniques that belong only to permaculture. Permaculturists employ techniques from a broad range of disciplines, but these tools are selected and applied according to how well they allow permaculture's principles to be applied, not because a particular method is “how we do it in permaculture.”

Principles

Each practitioner of permaculture develops their own principles. Some have as many as 50 while others use 12 that were established by David Holmgren.

Certification

Permaculture certification can be obtained by completing a Permaculture Design Course (PDC). See Courses below for more info.

Renowned Designers, Practitioners, and Educators

Main Article: People of Permaculture

  • Bill Mollison - Permaculture's founder
  • Geoff Lawton - Leading modern permaculturist “All the world's problems can be solved in a garden.” - Geoff Lawton, Permaculturist
  • Sepp Holzer - Independent developer of permaculture since the early 1960's
  • Jack Spirko - Bringing permaculture to the prepper community
  • Paul Wheaton - “The Duke of Permaculture”, Permies.com Forum founder

Appeal to Survivalists

Permaculture results in long term productive ecosystems that require minimal maintained and little to no inputs once established. Permaculture also creates abundance on marginal land often considered not viable for agricultural use. It includes everything from water catchment, alternative energy systems, alternative building, livestock management to food forestry and more. It is a system that results in a highly self sufficient lifestyle in all times not just during a crisis. Hence it has gained broad acceptance by survivalists, preppers and homesteaderss.

Courses

Educational Materials

Main article on Permaculture Books and Materials

Many books have been written on the subject of permaculture. A Designers Manual by Bill Mollison is considered by many to be the definite work, whileIntroduction to Permaculture and as well as Gaia's Garden by Toby Hemenway are some of the most popular. A complete list of Permaculture books is available here.

Permaculture Voices Conference 2014

Permaculture Voices in Temecula, California March 13-16, 2014 – This will be the first conference of its type in the world. Jack Spirko will be speaking along side such greats as Geoff Lawton, Paul Wheaton of Permies.com, Toby Hemenway, Allan Savory, Mark Shepard, Greg Judy, Joel Salatin, Michael Pollan and Dr. Elaine Ingham. More details at PermacultureVoices.com

The Survival Podcast will make available videos from the conference.

See Also

References

External Links

Permaculture Invest in tangibles Permaculturalists

Snippet from Wikipedia: Permaculture

Permaculture is a set of design principles centered on whole systems thinking, simulating, or directly utilizing the patterns and resilient features observed in natural ecosystems. It uses these principles in a growing number of fields from regenerative agriculture, rewilding, and community resilience.

The term permaculture was coined by David Holmgren, then a graduate student at the Tasmanian College of Advanced Education's Department of Environmental Design, and Bill Mollison, senior lecturer in Environmental Psychology at University of Tasmania, in 1978. It originally meant "permanent agriculture", but was expanded to stand also for "permanent culture", since social aspects were integral to a truly sustainable system as inspired by Masanobu Fukuoka's natural farming philosophy.

It has many branches including ecological design, ecological engineering, regenerative design, environmental design, and construction. Permaculture also includes integrated water resources management that develops sustainable architecture, and regenerative and self-maintained habitat and agricultural systems modelled from natural ecosystems.

Mollison has said: "Permaculture is a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor; and of looking at plants and animals in all their functions, rather than treating any area as a single product system."

The twelve principles of permaculture most commonly referred to were first described by David Holmgren in his book Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability (2002). They include Observe and Interact, Catch and Store Energy, Obtain a Yield, Apply Self Regulation and Accept Feedback, Use and Value Renewable Resources and Services, Produce No Waste, Design From Patterns to Details, Integrate Rather Than Segregate, Use Small and Slow Solutions, Use and Value Diversity, Use Edges and Value the Marginal, and Creatively Use and Respond to Change.

Permaculture is a branch of ecological design, ecological engineering, and environmental design that develops sustainable architecture and self-maintained agricultural systems modeled from natural ecosystems.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> The term permaculture (as a systematic method) was first coined by Australians Bill Mollison and David Holmgren in 1978. The word permaculture originally referred to “permanent agriculture” <ref>King, FH (Franklin Hiram) ''Farmers of Forty Centuries: Or Permanent Agriculture in China, Korea and Japan'' (1911)</ref> but was expanded to stand also for “permanent culture,” as it was seen that social aspects were integral to a truly sustainable system as inspired by Masanobu Fukuoka's natural farming philosophy.

<blockquote> “Permaculture is a philosophy of working with, rather than against nature; of protracted and thoughtful observation rather than protracted and thoughtless labor; and of looking at plants and animals in all their functions, rather than treating any area as a single product system.” - Bill Mollison <ref>

</ref> </blockquote>

History

In 1929, Joseph Russell Smith took up an antecedent term as the subtitle for Tree Crops: A Permanent Agriculture, a book in which he summed up his long experience experimenting with fruits and nuts as crops for human food and animal feed.<ref name=jrsjs>

</ref> Smith saw the world as an inter-related whole and suggested mixed systems of trees and crops underneath. This book inspired many individuals intent on making agriculture more sustainable, such as Toyohiko Kagawa who pioneered forest farming in Japan in the 1930s.<ref>

</ref>

The definition of permanent agriculture as that which can be sustained indefinitely was supported by Australian P. A. Yeomans in his 1973 book Water for Every Farm. Yeoman introduced an observation-based approach to land use in Australia in the 1940s; and the keyline design as a way of managing the supply and distribution of water in the 1950s.

Stewart Brand's works were an early influence noted by Holmgren.<ref>

</ref> Other early influences include Ruth Stout and Esther Deans, who pioneered "no-dig gardening methods", and Masanobu Fukuoka who, in the late 1930s in Japan, began advocating no-till orchards, gardens and natural farming.<ref>

</ref>

The first recorded modern application of permaculture concepts as a systematic method was possibly by Austrian farmer Sepp Holzer in the 1960s. In 2010, an organic dwellings system in Bali was unveiled by Ivan Taslimson, demonstrated to select architects. <ref>

</ref>

Core tenets

The core tenets of permaculture are:<ref>Greenblott, Kara, and Kristof Nordin. 2012. Permaculture Design for Orphans and Vulnerable Children Programming: Low-Cost, Sustainable Solutions for Food and Nutrition Insecure Communities. Arlington, VA: USAID's AIDS Support and Technical Assistance Resources, AIDSTAR -One, Task Order 1. http://www.aidstar-one.com/focus_areas/ovc/resources/technical_briefs/permaculture_for_OVC</ref><ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

  • Care for the earth: Provision for all life systems to continue and multiply. This is the first principle, because without a healthy earth, humans cannot flourish.
  • Care for the people: Provision for people to access those resources necessary for their existence.
  • Return of surplus: Reinvesting surpluses back into the system to provide for the first two ethics. This includes returning waste back into the system to recycle into usefulness.<ref>

    </ref>

Permaculture design emphasizes patterns of landscape, function, and species assemblies. It determines where these elements should be placed so they can provide maximum benefit to the local environment. The central concept of permaculture is maximizing useful connections between components and synergy of the final design. The focus of permaculture, therefore, is not on each separate element, but rather on the relationships created among elements by the way they are placed together; the whole becoming greater than the sum of its parts. Permaculture design therefore seeks to minimize waste, human labor, and energy input by building systems with maximal benefits between design elements to achieve a high level of synergy. Permaculture designs evolve over time by taking into account these relationships and elements and can become extremely complex systems that produce a high density of food and materials with minimal input.<ref name=“Edible Forest Gardening”>

</ref>

The design principles which are the conceptual foundation of permaculture were derived from the science of systems ecology and study of pre-industrial examples of sustainable land use. Permaculture draws from several disciplines including organic farming, agroforestry, integrated farming, sustainable development, and applied ecology.<ref name=“David Holmgren 1997”>

</ref> Permaculture has been applied most commonly to the design of housing and landscaping, integrating techniques such as agroforestry, natural building, and rainwater harvesting within the context of permaculture design principles and theory.

Theory

Twelve design principles

Twelve Permaculture design principles articulated by David Holmgren in his Permaculture: Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability:<ref>

</ref>

  1. Observe and interact: By taking time to engage with nature we can design solutions that suit our particular situation.
  2. Catch and store energy: By developing systems that collect resources at peak abundance, we can use them in times of need.
  3. Obtain a yield: Ensure that you are getting truly useful rewards as part of the work that you are doing.
  4. Apply self-regulation and accept feedback: We need to discourage inappropriate activity to ensure that systems can continue to function well.
  5. Use and value renewable resources and services: Make the best use of nature's abundance to reduce our consumptive behavior and dependence on non-renewable resources.
  6. Produce no waste: By valuing and making use of all the resources that are available to us, nothing goes to waste.
  7. Design from patterns to details: By stepping back, we can observe patterns in nature and society. These can form the backbone of our designs, with the details filled in as we go.
  8. Integrate rather than segregate: By putting the right things in the right place, relationships develop between those things and they work together to support each other.
  9. Use small and slow solutions: Small and slow systems are easier to maintain than big ones, making better use of local resources and producing more sustainable outcomes.
  10. Use and value diversity: Diversity reduces vulnerability to a variety of threats and takes advantage of the unique nature of the environment in which it resides.
  11. Use edges and value the marginal: The interface between things is where the most interesting events take place. These are often the most valuable, diverse and productive elements in the system.
  12. Creatively use and respond to change: We can have a positive impact on inevitable change by carefully observing, and then intervening at the right time.

Patterns

Permaculture is a design philosophy which seeks to exploit and imitate naturally occurring patterns. Patterns occur in nature in many forms: From studying Fractals, patterns emerge as mathematical principles from apparently random things such as the shape of plants.

Permaculture designers are encouraged to develop a sensitivity to the patterns that exist in nature, to determine their complex functions and the various interrelations. Since humans have complex intentions and a wide variety of goals, permaculture design draws upon a variety patterns, building a pattern language as defined by Christopher Alexander. These natural patterns can often be utilized—either exploited or imitated or both exploited and imitated—to satisfy specific design goals. For example, “the application of pattern on a design site involves the designer recognizing the shape and potential to fit these patterns or combinations of patterns comfortably onto the landscape”.<ref>Sampson-Kelly</ref>

Patterns such as spiral, branching, wave, net and honeycomb are structural patterns that are repeated throughout nature. “A lot of the structural patterns combine strength and beauty with efficiency of space through large surface area or extensive edges. Looking at the benefits of these characteristics provides us with attitudes that we can emulate in our design work.”<ref name=“People and Permaculture”>

</ref>

Layers

, UK with different layers of vegetation]] Layers are one of the tools used to design functional ecosystems that are both sustainable and of direct benefit to humans. A mature ecosystem has a huge number of relationships between its component parts: trees, understory, ground cover, soil, fungi, insects, and animals. Because plants grow to different heights, a diverse community of life is able to grow in a relatively small space, as each layer is stacked one on top of another. There are generally seven recognized layers in a food forest, although some practitioners also include fungi as an eighth layer:

  1. The canopy: the tallest trees in the system. Large trees dominate but do not saturate the area, i.e. there exist patches barren of trees.
  2. Understory layer: trees that usually grow less than 45'
  3. Shrubs: a diverse layer that includes most berry bushes
  4. Herbaceous: may be annuals, biennials or perennials; most annuals will fit into this layer
  5. Soil surface: cover crops to retain soil and lessen erosion, along with green manures to add nutrients and organic matter to the soil, especially nitrogen
  6. Rhizosphere: root crops including potatoes and other edible tubers
  7. Vertical layer: climbers or vines, such as runner beans and lima beans (vine varieties)

Guilds

A guild is any group of species where each provides a unique set of diverse functions that work in conjunction, or harmony. Guilds are groups of plants, animals, insects, etc. that work well together. Some plants may be grown for food production, some have tap roots that draw nutrients up from deep in the soil, some are nitrogen-fixing legumes, some attract beneficial insects, and others repel harmful insects. When grouped together in a mutually beneficial arrangement, these plants form a guild.<ref>

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Edge effect

The edge effect in ecology is the effect of the juxtaposition or placing side by side of contrasting environments on an ecosystem. Permaculturists argue that, where vastly differing systems meet, there is an intense area of productivity and useful connections. An example of this is the coast; where the land and the sea meet there is a particularly rich area that meets a disproportionate percentage of human and animal needs. So this idea is played out in permacultural designs by using spirals in the herb garden or creating ponds that have wavy undulating shorelines rather than a simple circle or oval (thereby increasing the amount of edge for a given area).

Zones

Zones are a way of intelligently organizing design elements in a human environment on the basis of the frequency of human use and plant or animal needs. Frequently manipulated or harvested elements of the design are located close to the house in zones 1 and 2. Less frequently used or manipulated elements, and elements that benefit from isolation (such as wild species) are farther away. Zones are about positioning things appropriately. Zones are numbered from 0 to 5:

; Zone 0: The house, or home center. Here permaculture principles would be applied in terms of aiming to reduce energy and water needs, harnessing natural resources such as sunlight, and generally creating a harmonious, sustainable environment in which to live and work. Zone 0 is an informal designation, which is not specifically defined in Bill Mollison's book.

; Zone 1: The zone nearest to the house, the location for those elements in the system that require frequent attention, or that need to be visited often, such as salad crops, herb plants, soft fruit like strawberries or raspberries, greenhouse and cold frames, propagation area, worm compost bin for kitchen waste, etc. Raised beds are often used in zone 1 in urban areas.

; Zone 2: This area is used for siting perennial plants that require less frequent maintenance, such as occasional weed control or pruning, including currant bushes and orchards, pumpkins, sweet potato, etc. This would also be a good place for beehives, larger scale composting bins, and so on.

; Zone 3: The area where main-crops are grown, both for domestic use and for trade purposes. After establishment, care and maintenance required are fairly minimal (provided mulches and similar things are used), such as watering or weed control maybe once a week.

; Zone 4: A semi-wild area. This zone is mainly used for forage and collecting wild food as well as production of timber for construction or firewood.

; Zone 5: A wilderness area. There is no human intervention in zone 5 apart from the observation of natural ecosystems and cycles. Through this zone we build up a natural reserve of bacteria, moulds and insects that can aid the zones above it.<ref>Permacultuur course</ref>

People and permaculture

Permaculture uses observation of nature to create regenerative systems, and the place where this has been most visible has been on the landscape. There has been a growing awareness though that firstly, there is the need to pay more attention to the peoplecare ethic, as it is often the dynamics of people that can interfere with projects, and secondly that the principles of permaculture can be used as effectively to create vibrant, healthy and productive people and communities as they have been in landscapes.

Domesticated animals

Domesticated animals are often incorporated into site design.<ref>

</ref>

Common practices

Agroforestry

Agroforestry is an integrated approach of using the interactive benefits from combining trees and shrubs with crops and/or livestock. It combines agricultural and forestry technologies to create more diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems.<ref>

</ref> In agroforestry systems, trees or shrubs are intentionally used within agricultural systems, or non-timber forest products are cultured in forest settings.

Forest gardening is a term permaculturalists use to describe systems designed to mimic natural forests. Forest gardens, like other permaculture designs, incorporate processes and relationships that the designers understand to be valuable in natural ecosystems. The terms forest garden and food forest are used interchangeably in the permaculture literature. Numerous permaculturists are proponents of forest gardens, such as Graham Bell, Patrick Whitefield, Dave Jacke, Eric Toensmeier and Geoff Lawton. Bell started building his forest garden in 1991 and wrote the book The Permaculture Garden in 1995, Whitefield wrote the book How to Make a Forest Garden in 2002, Jacke and Toensmeier co-authored the two volume book set Edible Forest Gardening in 2005, and Lawton presented the film Establishing a Food Forest in 2008.<ref name=“Edible Forest Gardening”/><ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

Tree Gardens, such as Kandyan tree gardens, in South and Southeast Asia, are often hundreds of years old. Whether they derived initially from experiences of cultivation and forestry, as is the case in agroforestry, or whether they derived from an understanding of forest ecosystems, as is the case for permaculture systems, is not self-evident. Many studies of these systems, especially those that predate the term permaculture, consider these systems to be forms of agroforestry. Permaculturalists who include existing and ancient systems of polycropping with woody species as examples of food forests may obscure the distinction between permaculture and agroforestry.

Food forests and agroforestry are parallel approaches that lead, sometimes, to similar designs.

Hügelkultur

Hügelkultur is the practice of burying large volumes of wood to increase soil water retention. The porous structure of wood acts as a sponge when decomposing underground. During the rainy season, masses of buried wood can absorb enough water to sustain crops through the dry season.<ref>Wheaton, Paul. "raised garden beds: hugelkultur instead of irrigation" Richsoil.com. Retrieved 2012-07-15.</ref> This technique has been used by permaculturalists Sepp Holzer, Toby Hemenway, and Masanobu Fukuoka.<ref>Hemenway, Toby (2009). Gaia's Garden: A Guide to Home-Scale Permaculture. Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 84-85. ISBN 978-1-60358-029-8.</ref><ref>Feineigle, Mark. "Hugelkultur: Composting Whole Trees With Ease". Permaculture Research Institute of Australia. Retrieved 2012-07-15.</ref>

Natural building

A natural building involves a range of building systems and materials that place major emphasis on sustainability. Ways of achieving sustainability through natural building focus on durability and the use of minimally processed, plentiful or renewable resources, as well as those that, while recycled or salvaged, produce healthy living environments and maintain indoor air quality.

The basis of natural building is the need to lessen the environmental impact of buildings and other supporting systems, without sacrificing comfort, health or aesthetics. To be more sustainable, natural building uses primarily abundantly available, renewable, reused or recycled materials. In addition to relying on natural building materials, the emphasis on the architectural design is heightened. The orientation of a building, the utilization of local climate and site conditions, the emphasis on natural ventilation through design, fundamentally lessen operational costs and positively impact the environment. Building compactly and minimizing the ecological footprint is common, as are on-site handling of energy acquisition, on-site water capture, alternate sewage treatment and water reuse.

Rainwater harvesting

Rainwater harvesting is the accumulating and storing of rainwater for reuse before it reaches the aquifer.<ref name=“Rainwater harvesting”>

</ref> It has been used to provide drinking water, water for livestock, water for irrigation, as well as other typical uses. Rainwater collected from the roofs of houses and local institutions can make an important contribution to the availability of drinking water. It can supplement the subsoil water level and increase urban greenery. Water collected from the ground, sometimes from areas which are especially prepared for this purpose, is called stormwater harvesting.

Greywater is wastewater generated from domestic activities such as laundry, dishwashing, and bathing, which can be recycled on-site for uses such as landscape irrigation and constructed wetlands. Greywater is largely sterile, but not potable (drinkable). Greywater differs from water from the toilets which is designated sewage or blackwater, to indicate it contains human waste. Blackwater is septic or otherwise toxic and cannot be reused.

Sheet mulching

In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil. Any material or combination can be used as mulch, stones, leaves, cardboard, wood chips, gravel, etc., though in permaculture mulches of organic material are the most common because they perform more functions. These include: absorbing rainfall, reducing evaporation, providing nutrients, increasing organic matter in the soil, feeding and creating habitat for soil organisms, suppressing weed growth and seed germination, moderating diurnal temperature swings, protecting against frost, and reducing erosion. Sheet mulching is an agricultural no-dig gardening technique that attempts to mimic natural processes occurring within forests. Sheet mulching mimics the leaf cover that is found on forest floors. When deployed properly and in combination with other Permacultural principles, it can generate healthy, productive and low maintenance ecosystems.<ref name=“agroforestry”>

</ref><ref name=“mason”>Sustainable Agriculture by J. Mason, Landlinks Press 2003</ref>

Sheet mulch serves as a “nutrient bank,” storing the nutrients contained in organic matter and slowly making these nutrients available to plants as the organic matter slowly and naturally breaks down. It also improves the soil by attracting and feeding earthworms, slaters and many other soil micro-organisms, as well as adding humus. Earthworms “till” the soil, and their worm castings are among the best fertilizers and soil conditioners. Sheet mulching can be used to reduce or eliminate undesirable plants by starving them of light, and can be more advantageous than using herbicide or other methods of control.

Managed intensive rotational grazing

Grazing has long been blamed for much of the destruction we see in the environment. However, it has been shown that when grazing is modeled after nature, the opposite effect can be seen.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref> Also known as cell grazing, managed intensive rotational grazing (MIRG) is a system of grazing in which ruminant and non-ruminant herds and/or flocks are regularly and systematically moved to fresh pasture, range, or forest with the intent to maximize the quality and quantity of forage growth. This disturbance is then followed by a period of rest which allows new growth. MIRG can be used with cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, chickens, rabbits, geese, turkeys, ducks and other animals depending on the natural ecological community that is being mimicked. Sepp Holzer and Joel Salatin have shown how the disturbance caused by the animals can be the spark needed to start ecological succession or prepare ground for planting. Allan Savory's holistic management technique has been likened to “a permaculture approach to rangeland management”.<ref>

</ref> One variation on MIRG that is gaining rapid popularity is called eco-grazing. Often used to either control invasives or re-establish native species, in eco-grazing the primary purpose of the animals is to benefit the environment and the animals can be, but are not necessarily, used for meat, milk or fiber.<ref>

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Keyline design

Keyline design is a technique for maximizing beneficial use of water resources of a piece of land developed in Australia by farmer and engineer P. A. Yeomans. The Keyline refers to a specific topographic feature linked to water flow which is used in designing the drainage system of the site.<ref>

</ref>

Fruit tree management

::The no-pruning option is usually ignored by fruit experts, though often practised by default in people's back gardens! But it has its advantages. Obviously it reduces work, and more surprisingly it can lead to higher overall yields. :::—Patrick Whitefield, How to make a forest garden p16

Masanobu Fukuoka, as part of early experiments on his family farm in Japan, experimented with no-pruning methods, noting that he ended up killing many fruit trees by simply letting them go, which made them become convoluted and tangled, and thus unhealthy.<ref name=“Natural Way Farming-Pruning”>Masanobu Fukuoka 1985 -revised ed. 1987 “The Natural Way Of Farming-The Theory and Practice of Green Philosophy” Japan Publications, Tokyo. -page 204</ref><ref name=“One–Straw Rev-Pruning”>Masanobu Fukuoka 1978 “The One–Straw Revolution” Rodale Press, U.S.A. -pages 13, 15-18, 46, 58-60</ref> Then he realised this is the difference between natural-form fruit trees and the process of change of tree form that results from abandoning previously-pruned unnatural fruit trees.<ref name=“Natural Way Farming-Pruning” /><ref name=“One–Straw Rev-Pruning” /> He concluded that the trees should be raised all their lives without pruning, so they form healthy and efficient branch patterns that follow their natural inclination. This is part of his implementation of the Tao-philosophy of Wú wéi translated in part as no-action (against nature), and he described it as no unnecessary pruning, nature farming or “do-nothing” farming, of fruit trees, distinct from non-intervention or literal no-pruning. He ultimately achieved yields comparable to or exceeding standard/intensive practices of using pruning and chemical fertilisation.<ref name=“Natural Way Farming-Pruning” /><ref name=“One–Straw Rev-Pruning” /><ref name=“Ramon Magsaysay Award-Bio”>The 1988 Ramon Magsaysay Award for Public Service - "BIOGRAPHY of Masanobu Fukuoka" The Ramon Magsaysay Award Foundation website. (Retrieved 2011-3-2).</ref>

Mollison and Holmgren

in January 2008.]] In the mid-1970s, Bill Mollison and David Holmgren started developing ideas about stable agricultural systems on the southern Australian island state of Tasmania. This was a result of the danger of the rapidly growing use of industrial-agricultural methods. In their view, highly dependent on non renewable resources, these methods were additionally poisoning land and water, reducing biodiversity, and removing billions of tons of topsoil from previously fertile landscapes. A design approach called permaculture was their response and was first made public with the publication of their book Permaculture One in 1978.

By the early 1980s, the concept had broadened from agricultural systems design towards sustainable human habitats. After Permaculture One, Mollison further refined and developed the ideas by designing hundreds of permaculture sites and writing more detailed books, notably Permaculture: A Designers Manual. Mollison lectured in over 80 countries and taught his two-week Permaculture Design Course (PDC) to many hundreds of students.

In 1991, a four-part television documentary by ABC productions called “The Global Gardener” showed permaculture applied to a range of worldwide situations, bringing the concept to a much broader public.

In 2012, the UMass Permaculture Initiative won the White House “Champions of Change” sustainability contest, which declared that “they demonstrate how permaculture can feed a growing population in an environmentally sustainable and socially responsible manner”.<ref>

</ref>

In 1997, Holmgren explained that the primary agenda of the permaculture movement is to assist people to become more self-reliant through the design and development of productive and sustainable gardens and farms.<ref name=“David Holmgren 1997”>

</ref>

There has been contention over who if anyone controls the legal rights to the word permaculture, meaning is it trademarked or copyrighted, and if so, who holds the legal rights to the use of the word. For a long time Bill Mollison claimed to have copyrighted the word, and his books said on the copyright page, “The contents of this book and the word PERMACULTURE are copyright.” These statements were largely accepted at face-value within the permaculture community. However, copyright law does not protect names, ideas, concepts, systems, or methods of doing something; it only protects the expression or the description of an idea, not the idea itself. Eventually Mollison acknowledged that he was mistaken and that no copyright protection existed for the word permaculture.<ref>

</ref>

In 2000 Mollison's US based Permaculture Institute sought a service mark (a form of trademark) for the word permaculture when used in educational services such as conducting classes, seminars, or workshops.<ref>

</ref> The service mark would have allowed Mollison and his two Permaculture Institutes (one in the US and one in Australia) to set enforceable guidelines as to how permaculture could be taught and who could teach it, particularly with relation to the PDC, despite the fact that he had instituted a system of certification of teachers to teach the PDC in 1993.This certification was granted to teachers like April Sampson-kelly and others in 1993. The service mark failed and was abandoned in 2001. Also in 2001 Mollison applied for trademarks in Australia for the terms “Permaculture Design Course”<ref>

</ref> and “Permaculture Design”.<ref>

</ref> These applications were both withdrawn in 2003. In 2009 he sought a trademark for “Permaculture: A Designers' Manual”<ref>

</ref> and “Introduction to Permaculture”,<ref>

</ref> the names of two of his books. These applications were withdrawn in 2011. There has never been a trademark for the word permaculture in Australia.<ref>

</ref>

Criticisms

General criticisms

In 2011, Owen Hablutzel argued that “permaculture has yet to gain a large amount of specific mainstream scientific acceptance,” and that “the sensitiveness to being perceived and accepted on scientific terms is motivated in part by a desire for Permaculture to expand and become increasingly relevant.” Bec-Hellouin permaculture farm engaged in a research program in partnership with INRA and AgroParisTech to collect scientific data.<ref>

</ref><ref>

</ref>

In his books Sustainable Freshwater Aquaculture and Farming in Ponds and Dams, Nick Romanowski expresses the view that the presentation of aquaculture in Bill Mollison's books is unrealistic and misleading, a view also shared by most environmental scientists and engineers.<ref>http://www.permacultureinternational.org/Members/fernrainbow/nick-crit

</ref> Linda Chalker-Scott alleges that Toby Hemenway's views regarding invasive species in the permaculture book Gaia's Garden are pseudoscience.<ref>https://sharepoint.cahnrs.wsu.edu/blogs/urbanhort/archive/2010/04/28/permaculture-beginning-a-discussion.aspx</ref><ref>https://sharepoint.cahnrs.wsu.edu/blogs/urbanhort/archive/2010/05/26/permaculture-my-final-thoughts.aspx</ref>

Agroforestry

Greg Williams argues that forests cannot be more productive than farmland because the net productivity of forests decline as they mature due to ecological succession.<ref name=“Williams 2001”>

</ref> Proponents of permaculture respond that this is true only if one compares data from between woodland forest and climax vegetation, but not when comparing farmland vegetation with woodland forest.<ref>

</ref> For example, ecological succession generally results in a forest's productivity rising after its establishment only until it reaches the woodland state (67% tree cover), before declining until full maturity.<ref name=“Edible Forest Gardening”/>

See also

Notes

References

External links

Permaculture Sustainability Environmental design Sustainable environmental design Sustainable agriculture Sustainable gardening Horticulture and gardening Rural community development Sustainable food system Systems ecology Landscape architecture Australian inventions


“All the world's problems can be solved in a garden.” - Geoff Lawton, Permaculturist

Permaculture is an ethics based design system. The word, theories, philosophies, ethics, patterns, and main ideas of permaculture were developed by Bill Mollison in Australia during the 1970s.

The word permaculture is a portmanteau that was originally created from the words “permanent agriculture”. It has now been expanded to include the more broad words of “permanent culture”.

Permaculture is a series of frameworks and tools to analyze, design, and create systems of all types. It is most widely applied to agricultural systems although any type of system can be established using the permaculture framework.

Ethics

;Care for the earth :Provision for all life systems to continue and multiply. This is the first principle, because without a healthy earth, humans cannot flourish.

;Care for the people :Provision for people to access those resources necessary for their existence.

;Return of surplus :Reinvesting surpluses back into the system to provide for the first two ethics. This includes returning waste back into the system to recycle into usefulness.

Principles

Each practitioner of permaculture develops there own principles. Some have as many as 50 while others use 12 that were established by David Holmgren.

Certification

Permaculture certification can be obtained by completing a Permaculture Design Course (PDC).

Common Practices and Concepts

Designers, Practitioners, and Educators

Appeal to Survivalists

Permaculture results in long term productive ecosystems that require minimal maintained and little to no inputs once established. Permaculture also creates abundance on marginal land often considered not viable for agricultural use. It includes everything from water catchment, alternative energy systems, alternative building, livestock management to food forestry and more. It is a system that results in a highly self sufficient lifestyle in all times not just during a crisis. Hence it has gained broad acceptance by survivalists, preppers and homesteaders.

Courses

Educational Materials

Main article

Many books have been written on the subject of permaculture. A Designers Manual by Bill Mollison is considered by many to be the definite work, whileIntroduction to Permaculture and as well as Gaia's Garden by Toby Hemenway are some of the most popular. A complete list of Permaculture books is available here.

See Also

References

<references />

External Links

Permaculture

“All the world's problems can be solved in a garden.” - Geoff Lawton

see Permaculture Playing Cards by Paul Wheaton of Permies.com



see Cover Crop

Soil Inoculant

Gardening Suppliers

Beans means Food Production via Permaculture

Beans in this case refers to food production, gardening, growing your own food, farming via permaculture. Also see food storage, food preparation, MREs, canning, backyard food production, gardening.

Pioneers include Paul Wheaton of Permies.com, Jason Akers and Marjory Wildcraft of Back Yard Food Production.

Invest in tangibles like the “Five B's”: 1.) Beans, 2.) Bullets, 3.) Bandaids, 4.) Bullion, 5.) Books.

http://www.kamiahpermaculture.com

http://palousepermaculture.com/page5/page5.html

Defining the term permaculture is no easy task. The term was originally coined by Bill Mollison of Australia in the 1970’s, to mean “permanent agriculture” but this definition eventually evolved to mean “permanent culture”. Permaculture is a design science for creating sustainable human environments developed through observation and analysis of natural systems. Permaculture includes energy efficient building design, ecosystem restoration and ecosystem creation, organic food production, wastewater treatment, recycling, restoring ecosystems, rainwater harvesting, renewable energy, land stewardship, community building and more.

Permaculture is focused on the relationships between these elements in the system rather than the individual elements. It is about working with nature rather than trying to conquer nature. Permaculture design mimics nature and is used to create site specific ecosystems. Permaculture provides positive solutions to the world’s problems. This is something each and everyone of us can do to make this world a better place, take responsibility for ourselves, and ensure our children have a future.

What Is Permaculture?

Permaculture Ethics

Care of the Earth

Care of the People

Return Any Surplus to the Earth and People

Permaculture Categories


See also the Permaculture.

See also Agriculture for more page

permaculture.txt · Last modified: 2019/12/01 03:03 (external edit)